Knowledge

Knowledge

Saws are mostly used by professionals and so called "Do It Yourself" people. Usually, you will find quite a large assortment of saws at the local hardware shop or DIY store. Therefore it can be difficult to choose the right saw. The professional user normally knows what he is looking for, but for a less experienced person, the choice is not obvious. On this site, we are giving you some basic facts about sawing and saws, which hopefully will make your choice easier in the future.


How does a saw work?

The illustrations show how a saw works. What happens while cutting is being accomplished by the tips of the saw tooth which in two parallel cutting lines cuts it´s way down into the wood. To get these lines, the teeth are bent outwards from the blade, each tooth in the opposite direction to the one next to it. The cut in the wood is wider than the saw blade which prevents the saw from getting stuck as you cut and also allows you to make adjustments if you are going slightly off line. If the teeth are set to much, you will be removing more wood than you need; too little set, and the saw will probably jam or you will find sawing very hard work.

To get the real cutting ability the teeth has to be sharpend. This is today being made by computorized machines, which makes every teeth look the same. For the cutting ability, it is very essential that the saw teeth have exactly the same height and angel to create the above mentioned cutting lines.


Saw teeth – Hand saws

4 main tooth shapes are available on the market.


Fleam teeth

Fleam teeth are cross-sharpened to produce sharp points for cutting across the grain. Because they are symmetrical, the teeth will cut equally well on the push and pull strokes when sawing. This type of cross cutting is the most common type of useage for a hand saw and probably represents 90% of all sawing jobs.


Universal teeth

As the name reveals, the universal toothing has certain versitality. A universal toothed saw both cuts and rips well, but as it is a mix of two types it only works on push strokes. Universal toothing is suitable for allround to fine carpentry. Compass-, veneer- and back saws are usually also universal toothed.


Group teeth

Group toothing is very common on saws used for rough cutting of wood, for example in the building industri while building forms for cement foundery, but also for quick cutting in particle boards and other rough materials. The teeth are divided into groups with an extra distance between the teeth and the groups, which helps the saw dust to be removed from the kerf. One other advantage with the group toothing is that it reduces vibrations.


3-edge teeth

In the past few years, a new type of toothing has been developed, the so called Japanese toothing or 3-edge toothing as we call it. It was invented in Japan. The advantage with this type of toothing is that it cuts efficiently and leaves a very clean cut. This type of toothing is therefore well suited for pruning but also fine carpentry work.


Tooth shapes – Bow saw blades

Bow saw blades are normally available in 2 different types. Straight toothed and raker toothed. G-Man Tools is offering both types also with different tooth sizes. Straight toothing is recommended for seasoned wood, whereas raker toothing is a better choice for green wood.


Length – Tooth size

The lenght of the saw should be adjusted to the tooth size, meaning that a longer saw can have bigger teeth, and a shorter saw smaller teeth. The hand saw toothing is measured in number of teeth/inch and varies from 3,5 up to 13 teeth per inch. To make it easy, one could say that 3,5 to 5 teeth per inch are suitable for rough cutting, 6-8 teeth per inch for allround cutting 9-11 teeth for fine carpentry 12 teeth and more are suitable for very fine carpentry. Fewer teeth gives a faster cutting but a more coarse cut and consequentely more teeth reduces the cutting ability but gives a finer cut.


Hardpointed saws

Today, most saws are supplied with hard-point teeth, meaning that about 1-2 mm of the tooth tip has been subject to to extra hardening. This makes the saw stay sharper about 3-5 times longer than a conventional saw. A hardpointed saw becomes so hard that it cannot be resharpened. The tooth tips of a hard-pointed saw are dark coloured.


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A saw works like this!
tand1

Every other tooth cuts alternately in the kerf´s edge. The tooth has to be set to be able to cut like this.

 

tand2

By setting one could say that every other tooth should be set to the right and every other tooth to the left.

 

Cross & Rip Cutting

kap2

Universal toothed saws are very suitable as allround saws. Compass-, back-, veneer saws are all universal toothed.

kap1

Fleamed toothed saws cut´s very good across the grain, this type of sawing is being made in 90% of all the cases.